Question 1: Development of the Theory of Evolution (25 points) Describe Darwin’s theory of evolution and the history of its development. Include in your answer: a. an historical framework for Darwin’s theory by describing the contributions of each of the following: Scheuchzer, Buffon, Smith, Lyell, Cuvier, Malthus, Wallace, Lamarck, Linnaeus, Hutton, Spallanzani, Pasteur. A few sentences about each, addressed in any order, are sufficient. b. a formal definition of Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection c. a descriiption of stabilizing selection, directional selection, disruptive selection and character displacement Question 2: Genetic Variation (25 points) Describe the nature of genes and genomes, the phenotypic differences that can occur in multigene, allelic systems and the role of gene frequencies as “forces of evolution”. Include in your answer: a. a summary of the “central dogma” and a descriiption of the relationships between DNA, RNA and protein b. a descriiption of genomes, alleles, genotypes and phenotypes c. a descriiption of the differences between Mendelian genetics and population genetics and the forces that can act to change gene frequencies For references, please follow this instruction Immediately following the essay, two lines below the last line of your essay, list all sources used in writing your essay to answer the question. Do not use in-text citations and do not use footnotes. Simply list your sources in this “References” section. You must have a References section with at least five references which you have used in preparing your answers: the course website, the textbook, and at least three additional sources. If you do not include a References section, you will lose 10 points (2 points for each missing source). Be sure to include the References section with your submission to Turnitin. If you forget, you are able to re-submit with the References section included until the deadline, but not after.

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