Depression in all men no matter what background INSTRUCTIONS Submit your full research paper, including your Introduction and Methods from a previews submission. These sections will not be graded. However, the order in which you include the new sections will be graded. One new section is the abstract. It should be written last, but should be on the second page after the title page. Your results and discussion sections should follow the methods section without inserting a page break. Finally, include the reference section last. Only your abstract, results section, discussion section, references, and APA formatting will be graded. The discussion section must contain an additional 7 references minimum. You may cite resources you used in your introduction, but there must be at least 7 more articles included in your discussion section that are new. The discussion portion must be 3 pages minimum. How to Write Your Results Section Use the following format to produce your results section: /content/enforced2/2391800-CO.430.PSYC2500.86221.20222/Research Project Between Subjects ANOVA Watch the following video showing you how to conduct your analyses with the dataset that you previously obtained: For supporting documents, upload your dataset, output sheet and your output sheet. Your output sheet may be in pdf or spv format. The Results section is where you get to report what the data reveals. However, you do not get to provide interpretation here. In fact, the rule is “results only.” The “fun” part of what you think the Results means gets written in the Discussion section. This does not mean there is no creativity allowed in the Results section. In fact, the wise writer uses graphs and figures to highlight the most important or interesting information. You will also want to point out results that didn’t amount to much of anything, although this is unsatisfying. Results are analyzed in terms of the hypotheses being tested, variables chosen,and tests performed. Preparing Results Step One: Since the Results section must use both verbal explanation and numerical explanation, it’s worth your time to write out a sentence or two about each of the various relationships you notice in the data. Note that I didn’t say “a sentence or two describing each and every result.” The reader is perfectly capable of looking at a bar graph and noting for themselves that % of first time computer users were between ages 4 and 5. So it is not to your benefit or the reader’s to write out a sentence describing every detail. What to include: - results that answer the research question (most important) - data you can use to outline important trends - results that you intend to address in the discussion section - results of statistical analyses, often in conjunction with measurements analyzed - results related to those obtained by other researchers, especially if they conflict or are controversial - negative results also Step Two: Create an interesting figure (graphs, tables) that reveals the relationships you’d most like the reader to notice. These should be results that most directly answer the research question. Thus crafting figures is a strategic way of highlighting information by juxtaposing salient results without actually going so far as to provide interpretation. You also need to have the basic data available for the reader, and this is where tables are quite useful. One thing to keep in mind – if you create a graph, then it is because you wish to say something about this information in the Discussion section. Do not create "kitchen sink" figures where you put all the data just to have it there. Finally, figures must have text about them written in the Results section. You cannot just stick in a figure and be done with it. The main point of the figure should be written out with an appropriate reference at the end of the sentence, "...(Fig. 1)". All figures require titles and captions; graphs must have clear labels for X & Y axes. **Note: Graphs created in SPSS are not proper APA format. You must edit the format to ensure the figure is presented according to APA guidelines. The instruction for modifying the graph is present in the video above.** University of Florida, Writing the Results Section, Retrieved from (Links to an external site.) How to Write your Discussion Section The discussion section is a framing section, like the Introduction, which returns to the significance argument set up in your introduction. So reread your introduction carefully before writing the discussion; you will discuss how the hypothesis has been demonstrated by the new research and then show how the field's knowledge has been changed by the addition of this new data. While the introduction starts generally and narrows down to the specific hypothesis, the discussion starts with the interpretation of the results, then moves outwards to contextualize these findings in the general field. The Discussion section is sort of an odd beast because it is here where you speculate, but must avoid rambling, guessing, or making logical leaps beyond what is reasonably supported for your data. The solution that has evolved over time is to set up the Discussion section as a "dialogue" between Results -- yours and everyone elses'. In other words, for every experimental result you want to talk about, you find results/models/conclusions from other publications bearing the relationship to your result that you want the reader to understand. Claim -- add new information to what is already known -- "we are the first to show" Corroborate -- support what is already known -- "similar/same as to X" Clarify -- extend or refine what is already known -- "because X, also Y" or "because X, not Y" Conflict -- counter or contradict what is already known -- "contrary to" This is how the new data you've generated is "situated" in the field -- by your careful placement of what is new against that which is already known. Results can take the form of data, hypotheses, models, definitions, formulas, etc. ***Parts of the Discussion Section*** Addressing the Hypothesis Did the data support your hypothesis? How do your findings relate to the previous research? Problems and Limitations To what extent did your study provide an adequate test of your Hypothesis? What ethical issues were raised? What methodological flaws or problems did your encounter? Sampling errors, internal/external validity, issues with generalizability, etc. Do the data support an alternative theory? Closing the Closing To what other populations can your findings be generalized? What are the practical implications of your findings? What direction should further research on this topic take? University of Florida, Writing the Discussion, Retrieved from (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. Supplemental Readings Do's and Dont's of a Discussion Section (Links to an external site.) The Abstract The abstract should be written last once you have written all the other sections. However, the abstract appears on the second page. There should be one or two sentences dedicated to each section of the paper. The first sentence should describe why the research is important. The second sentence provides the hypothesis. The third sentence should summarize all three sections of the methods (., participants, materials, procedures). The fourth sentence should indicate what the results were with no reference to numbers. Instead, focus on letting readers know whether the experimental group changed in the hypothesized direction and whether the control group stayed the same at posttest. Finally, tell the readers how the results can be used in the future to improve lives. The abstract should be between 100 and 130 words in length.